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Summary

Our knowledge of Latin texts from (late) Antiquity is mostly based on early medieval manuscripts. More manuscripts of the classics survive that were copied in the ninth century than in any succeeding century until the fifteenth. The margins of these manuscripts are filled with annotations in tiny script, adding layers of interpretation to the ancient texts so treasured in the early Middle Ages. Scholarship to date has failed to give these texts the attention they deserve. It has long discarded them as unimportant scribblings of anonymous monks, obscuring the main text. Yet these comments are rich sources for intellectual history. They tell the story of the transmission and transformation of learning on a wide variety of subjects, ranging from Neoplatonic ideas about creation to the natural phenomena of the cosmos. They reveal the methods and interests of scholarship in this period.

Marginalia are a largely uncharted area: they are notoriously difficult with their inaccessible style and fuzzy transmission. Moreover, the history of scholarship has traditionally focused on protagonists in the evolution of ideas, and only recently started addressing circulation of knowledge and scholarly practices. The anonymous marginalia have therefore been neglected as important witnesses of scholarly and scientific developments. This project puts them in the spotlight and presents them as essential for our understanding of intellectual life in early medieval Europe, when the practices of scholarship and learning were formed for centuries to come.

Marginal scholarship contains three interrelated projects to come firmly to grips with the exciting world of early medieval scholarship hidden in the margins. They explore the topic from three different yet complementary angles, dealing with: 1. scholarly genres and their interdependence; 2. leading centres of intellectual production and transmission; 3. the organisation of learning in a specific collection of manuscripts: the collection of Leiden University. The projects were carried out  by a team of three researchers: a Ph.D. student, a postdoc researcher, and the project leader herself.

Keywords

History of scholarship, history of ideas, early medieval history, circulation of knowledge, textual culture.

Leiden, UB, VLF 64. Juvenalis, Satyrae. France, second half of the 10th century.
Leiden, UB, VLF 64. Juvenalis, Satyrae. France, second half of the 10th century.

Introduction

To our modern eyes, marginalia may look like an unimportant by-product of a book-culture: hand-written annotations of readers, who may have used them to produce new texts or form new ideas, yet because of their hand-written nature by definition private and preliminary. But with respect to the Middle Ages, when writing by hand was the only way to produce texts and when parchment was far too precious to be used for notes, this view of the margin is utterly wrong. Exactly the opposite is true: the margin was an excellent place to start new scholarship, especially the margins of books that contained approved and highly-valued scholarship such as the texts of the authoritative authors from Antiquity and Late Antiquity. These texts were copied with great zeal, and the fringes of these expensively written books were used to add layers of interpretation. In these marginal texts relationships between the text at hand and other texts on similar subjects were established; non-Christian ideas were reflected upon within a Christian context; new theories and models were created from ancient building blocks. Understanding the way in which this intellectual process works is at the heart of the proposed research. The time-frame chosen is the early medieval period, roughly from 800-1000. In the ninth century a new and unprecedented impulse was given to intellectual life, which is first and foremost reflected by the books made in this period and the scholarship added in their margins. In the tenth century, the scholarly genres and methods of the ninth century were maintained and further developed, until they gave birth to new ones in the eleventh/twelfth century, ages in which the culture of the book drastically changed (Illich 1996; Kwakkel 2007).

Scholarly background

The so-called Carolingian Renaissance is often measured by the vast number of manuscripts that were produced and the impetus given to cultural and ecclesiastical life (Contreni 1995). Carolingian rulers acted as patrons for scholarship and book production, and put themselves in charge of learning. They brought the brightest minds from all corners of their empire together, and put them to work on the solution of the tough intellectual problems of their time. There was a milieu, including lay aristocrats (Wormald & Nelson 2007), that had a passionate interest in texts. Under this royal protection religious communities thrived. The interaction between the powerful secular circles and the royally protected monastic centres resulted in just the right mix for an unprecedented flourishing of manuscript production and scholarship (Ganz 1995). Monastic libraries were filled with Christian and pagan books, and a genuine concern for their correct transmission and interpretation was continually emphasized.

Scholarship to date has uncovered the patronage of Carolingian rulers (Butzer 1997; Godman & Collins 1990; Gibson & Nelson 1990). It has identified references to ancient authors in the poetry and prose written in the ninth and tenth centuries (e.g. Godman 1985; Ganz 1990a; Garrison 2005), and it has inventoried the treasure houses of learning of Carolingian monastic libraries and encyclopaedic works (e.g. Reynolds 1983; Bischoff 1961, 1974, 1981; Mostert 1989; Ganz 1990; Bullough 2003). Yet the marginal scholarship present in these early medieval manuscripts has only in the last decade begun to attract attention (Most 1999; Goulet-Cazé 2000). Monastic scholars used first and foremost the margins of their books to explore and expand the ancient heritage. A few of their gloss collections have now been researched and published, but a general overview and interpretation of their scholarship is lacking. Which books received extensive glossing, and which topics? Which scholars or which monastic centres played a leading role, what were their methods, and for whom did they write? What was the connection to previous commentary traditions (e.g. Servius on Virgil), and contemporary genres of scholarship such as glossaria and encyclopaedia? How do these glosses interact between the original texts and their medieval readers? With such questions unasked and unanswered, the imprint of Carolingian scholarship on the transformation of knowledge and scholarly methods has been left largely unexplored, and is systematically underestimated.

Overall aim

The aim of this project is to chart for the first time the terra incognita of marginal scholarship in early medieval manuscripts. My hypothesis is that the expounding of older texts was not primarily driven by an educational goal, but that scholars first used these older texts to generate new learning. They connected thematically related texts, and marked their differences and contradictions. Marginalia thus not only show us which texts belonged to the shared intellectual background of early medieval scholars, but also what their methods were to make the ancient cultural heritage their own, and how ancient texts and contemporary issues were linked in intellectual discussions. As a scholarly genre they are, not unlike early modern scholarly letters, essential for our understanding of the dynamics of intellectual life in that period. It is only in the tenth century that a schoolmaster can be observed addressing a group of students. The tone of commentaries changed, their literary style and even their material form were shaped to fit a didactic function. This illustrates a fundamental shift in the organisation of learning that must have occurred in that century. In this project, I intend to put flesh on this hypothesis by making topical collections of gloss material, and study their shared sources, interconnections, style, and evolving scholarly methods.

IMG_1409 II
Leiden, UB, VLF 48, Martianus Capella, De nuptiis. First third of the 9th century, France. Augustine is referred to as a second, contradictory authority

Three general themes are particularly apt to guide my further exploration – they are the red threads that bind the three projects together. These themes are: the friction between the ancient secular heritage and Carolingian Christian identity; the pursuit of knowledge in the ancient learned tradition on the liberal arts; and the Carolingian admiration for the ancient literary heritage. Each of these is briefly introduced in the following.

1.       Despite its pre- or even anti-Christian character, the ancient learned tradition was the foundation of knowledge during the entire Middle Ages and beyond. In a pursuit of wisdom their pagan nature was disregarded, and in some cases it made them even more attractive: their paganism was seen as a hidden, secret form of Christian learning (Mayr-Harting 2007). The function of secular learning became the focus of intellectual debates, and was equally defended and scorned, praised and criticized, adored and feared. In the marginal texts, a constant friction can be observed between old and new cultures, and those topics that caused the hottest debates lay bare the issues that concerned  early medieval life most. Commentary traditions on secular texts show that the strands of medieval Platonism and Pythagoreanism were much stronger in early medieval intellectual history than previously assumed. Annotations on Martianus, Macrobius, Chalcidius and Cicero will help us chart the processes of transformation and adaptation (Marenbon 2002).

2.       Works of a scholarly nature, such as Pliny’s Natural history, or late antique works on arithmetic and astronomy, were avidly copied and studied in the early Middle Ages. Their copies have been noticed, but the scholarship in their margins has not, yet to know their nature and content would greatly enhance our understanding of the history of the disciplines. Some sample studies of limited scope have shown how revolutionary these texts were in transforming the ancient heritage of learning. Carolingian annotations on music treatises, for example, have revealed how the theoretical tradition of ancient Greek music, shaped to accommodate a system of scales on string instruments, was transformed into a modal system, consolidating the rules and boundaries of Gregorian chant (Bower 2002; Teeuwen 2002). A powerful new instrument of scholarship used on unprecedented scale by ninth-century scholars is the diagram, structuring knowledge in new models and giving birth to new theories (Eastwood 2007). The marginal scholarship of these works convincingly shows that there is still a great treasure to be found in other, still unexplored manuscripts.

IMG_1406 II
Leiden, UB, VLF 48, fol. 79 v. Planetary diagrams

3.       The literary heritage of ancient times was likewise eagerly explored in the early Middle Ages. Modern studies have researched some of the indirect reflections of the early medieval evaluation, transformation and use of the ancient literary tradition. The libraries of great monastic centres have been explored for the presence of ancient authors (Ganz 1990; Contreni 1978, 1992; Lobrichon 1991; Mostert 1989). Implicit references to ancient authors or tales have been laid bare in the poetry and art of Charlemagne’s court, which subtly show a deep familiarity with them (Godman 1985; Nees 1991). The literary nicknames Alcuin gave his friends show how the ancient literary tradition was part of their shared intellectual background (Garrison 1998), and a shared knowledge of Terence’s plays adds new layers of meaning to historical or polemical works (Ganz 1990a, De Jong 2009). But the most obvious sources, reflecting a first and direct contact with ancient authors, have largely been neglected so far: the margins of the early medieval manuscripts of Virgil, Ovid, Horace, Terence, etcetera, filled with annotations in ninth- and tenth-century hands. The questions these annotations raise should concern us first: Who were the glossators? How, why and for whom did they expound these texts?

Leiden, UB, BPL 88, Martianus Capella, De nuptiis. Ninth century, France (Reims?). A long gloss on Orpheus and Euridice in the hand I2, a scholar from the circle of Jong the Scot Eriugena.
Leiden, UB, BPL 88, Martianus Capella, De nuptiis. Ninth century, France (Reims?). A long gloss on Orpheus and Euridice in the hand I2, a scholar from the circle of Jong the Scot Eriugena.

Innovative elements

This project proposes to open up new and relevant sources for the history of scholarship. A focus on marginal texts will not be a journey along well-trodden paths, for several reasons. First, few editions have been published of marginal commentary traditions, obviously because they are difficult to read: written in tiny script, arranged around a main text in a confusing fashion, and because of limited writing space full of obscure abbreviations (Dionisotti 1996). Moreover, they are often transmitted in a damaged way, their existence in the margin, the most fragile part of the book, being the cause of their destruction.

Second, the nature of commentary texts in marginal and interlinear form seems to defy the boundaries of ‘text’ in the traditional sense. A commentary text is always open; scribes had the freedom to skip, alter or add, whether from the physical consultation of other books or from memory and imagination. The relationships between individual manuscripts are more complicated than the accepted methods provide for. Similarity and deviance being both essential to the transmission of marginalia, it is difficult – if not impossible – to draw up a stemma. The traditional text critical apparatus mediates between the most meaningful, perhaps original version of a text and variant readings in manuscripts, but in the case of glosses it fails as a scholarly instrument: the variants may represent layers of text, or combinations of multiple originals (Zetzel 2005). For this project, therefore, I intend to find new ways to chart the features of these fuzzy texts, and find new forms in which to make them visible. Moreover, I shall define anew what annotation texts actually are, guided, for example, by the theoretical model of the French literary theorist Gerard Genette (1987). In his seminal study ‘Paratexts: Thresholds of interpretation’ he presents texts outside the border of the book as literary functions and analyses their mediating force between text and audience. Applying his model to our marginal texts awakens new insights in the way annotative texts guide the reader. It also becomes clear that his model falls short with regard to the complex mediation our marginal texts accomplish: in his 20-page chapter on ‘notes’ Genette self-admittedly only treats the most obvious observations. The medieval material will be used to significantly diversify his model in this respect.

Third, my view on the function of glosses, a hotly debated subject among scholars in the field, is wholly new. The traditional interpretation of a glossed manuscript is that it was used in a context of teaching (Wieland 1975, 1983). Others observed that, when scrutinised in more detail, glosses do not always prove a school setting: in some cases they seem to have been copied just for the sake of preservation in rarely used library books (Lapidge 1982). I posit the hypothesis that the practice of glossing books started out as a scholarly practice. In the ninth century, when glossing activity was at a peak, monastic scholars glossed books to create collections of learning, tying as many references to other texts to the text at hand as possible (Teeuwen 2008). The hypothesis rests on the observation that the few Latin-Latin commentary traditions that have been published are deeply interconnected. They rely upon a common body of texts and share material between them. Moreover, the margin was the perfect place for dissent and debate: contradictions were displayed and discussed. These discoveries have far-reaching implications for our assessment of marginal scholarship as a whole. It hands us a new lens through which we will be able to see the full value of the genre for the first time.

Methodology and research plan

Three projects envisage to tackle the complex of questions sketched above. It should be stressed that the size of the material is large (in published but especially in manuscript form) and, to a certain degree, uncharted. Therefore, a thematic rather than an exhaustive approach is chosen: the three themes described above – the friction between non-Christian works and their Christian readers; the transmission and new use of ancient scholarly texts; the exploration of the ancient literary tradition – will serve as focal points for each of the three projects. Topical collections will thus be created to firmly tie the three projects together, and to allow a cross-fertilisation based on shared findings. The first project will focus on the relations between commentary traditions, and between commentaries and other scholarly genres; the second on the centres that keep resurfacing in almost any research concerning the early medieval interest in the ancient heritage: Corbie, Laon and Auxerre-Fleury, centres which played a leading role in the Carolingian cultural revival. In the third project the general themes of the project will be exemplified and synthesized, by focusing on one exceptionally rich modern collection of early medieval manuscripts, the collection of Leiden University Library, and telling the story that is hidden between their covers.

Project 1: Commentary traditions and scholarly genres: the literature of learning

Ph.D. student, 2011-2014. Promotores: Prof.dr. M.B. de Jong, Prof.dr. M. Mostert. Co-promotor: Dr. M.J. Teeuwen.

It is sobering to reflect on just how a medieval scholar might have made sense of an unread classical or late antique Latin text, which perhaps came to him in a damaged exemplar, hard to read because of unfamiliar script, and without the benefit of the scholarly tools that we have within reach today. There were no systematic dictionaries or encyclopaedias; the full range of aids to consultation that we take for granted was lacking. This project aims at mapping the tools that were available to an early medieval scholar.

The questions that are at the centre of this research are: If commentary traditions overlap, do they draw from the same source? And if so, which one? Is the source quoted, or is it paraphrased? Was it on the desk of our early medieval scholar, or was he adding remembered learning? The overlap between commentary traditions suggests a common background – a backbone of learning that was part of the intellectual baggage of a scholar. But if so, the texts that stocked his head be identified? And what is the relation between these gloss collections and other scholarly texts that were produced in the greater intellectual centres of the period: glossaria, encyclopaedic collections such as the eighth-century Liber glossarum, or Heiric of Auxerre’s adapted version of this book? Can the relationship be defined between gloss traditions and grammatical or rhetorical collections or with contemporary encyclopaedic works?

The relation between commentary traditions will be tested by searching for overlap on particular topics, taken from the earlier described themes: traces of ancient philosophies that caused friction with Christian orthodoxy; nuggets of ancient technical learning on the liberal arts; or references to specific ancient authors or texts. A database will be created with early medieval material on, e.g., the soul, life after death, the nature of number, diagrams charting dialectical, geometrical or astronomical theoretical models, the lives of ancient philosophers or poets. For the chosen topics, a corpus of published texts will be collected and researched (editions of commentary traditions and glossaries, encyclopaedic texts or text collections), but as much unpublished material from manuscripts as possible will be involved to give the research more precision and depth.

Project 2: The role of the intellectual centres of Corbie, Laon and Auxerre-Fleury.

Postdoc, 2012-2014. Advisors: Prof.dr. M.B. de Jong, Prof.dr. M. Mostert, Dr. M.J. Teeuwen.

Centres that surface again and again when one researches the transmission of classical texts in the early Middle Ages, and the scholarship that surrounds them are the monastery of St. Peter’s at Corbie, the cathedral school and library of Laon, the monastery of St. Germain at Auxerre, and the Benedictine monastery of Fleury sur Loire. At Corbie, Hadoard, Paschasius Radbertus and Ratramnus were the great masters whose names ring with fame in the ninth century (Ganz 1990), at Laon, Martin, Manno, Bernard and Adelhelm established a stable and prominent school which is especially well-known for its interest in Greek vocabulary (Contreni 1978), at Auxerre, Murethach, Haimo, Heiric and Remigius are famous for their production of scholarly texts and commentaries (Lobrichon 1991). Fleury was closely linked to Auxerre, and played an important role in intellectual life of the tenth century (Mostert 1989). The manuscript production of these centres has been researched, but never in relation to each other, and never with a special focus on their scholarly production and their ‘marginal scholarship’. In this project, their manuscripts with glosses will be studied to fill this lacuna. A shared collection of topics will be used to set up a series of case studies on the treatment of particular subjects in the marginal scholarship from these centres.

Questions at the heart of this project are: which texts received marginal scholarship? Can specific categories of texts be identified which yielded strong gloss-traditions in one or the other centre? The data thus gathered will open up new questions with deeper implications, such as: What was the impact of the marginal scholarship of these centres? Did their glossed manuscripts travel elsewhere, and feed other library-collections? How important was the royal patronage for their scholarly life, and how did this change under the succeeding rulers? The result will be a series of papers in international refereed journals.

Project 3: Carolingian scholarship exemplified by the Leiden collection

Dr. M.J. Teeuwen, 2011-2015

The national libraries in Paris, Vatican City, Munich and St. Petersburg are famous for their great collections of Carolingian manuscripts. With more than 100 manuscripts dated to the Carolingian period Leiden University Library should be added to this list. This collection was by and large brought together by the great humanists of Leiden University in the sixteenth and seventeenth century: Scaliger, Heinsius, Gerardus and Isaac Vossius, who had a special interest in classical authors and literature of a scholarly nature. The richness of this collection of great historical and national value is relatively unknown.

In this project connecting themes of the project will be exemplified with manuscripts from the Leiden collection (see a preliminary list at the end of this text). The result will not be a catalogue, but rather a thematic book on different aspects of Carolingian scholarly life, illustrated with Leiden manuscripts. Themes that will be treated are (1) the complexity of commentary traditions, (2) the function of glosses, (3) the development of commentary genres from the eighth to the tenth century.

  1. Commentary traditions are a rich source, but their interpretation is often very difficult. They survive in a layered state, one layer stacked on top of another (older or contemporary), sometimes with several traditions mixed into one new, eclectic tradition. Moreover, annotations are often transmitted in a corrupted or damaged form, which makes it hard to interpret their use and effect in medieval scholarly life. The question is: why were these damaged texts copied? What value was attached to copying texts that did not always make sense?
  2. Hypotheses about the function of glosses are usually based on an analysis of the appearance of text and glosses in the manuscripts. A stronger focus on the palaeographical and codicological details of the glossed book could perhaps be translated into a typology for different kinds of glossed manuscripts and gloss collections. An attempt to create such a typology would greatly improve our understanding of the nature of the scholarship that goes on in the margins.
  3. Ninth-century manuscripts with glosses greatly differ from tenth-century ones. A close look reveals trends which suggest that the practice of glossing and the function of glosses changed over the course of the centuries. How did these new genres of commentary evolve? Did they pave the way for the genres that were developed in the twelfth- and later centuries, when ‘consultation literature’ (dictionaries, indices, florilegia, abstracts) began to flourish as the tools of scholars in the universities? The manuscripts of this collection will give us the data to trace these developments.

Leiden, UB, BPL 82, Persius and Juvenalis. A densely glossed copy, 10th century, France. Portrait of Persius on fol. 1v.
Leiden, UB, BPL 82, Persius and Juvenalis. A densely glossed copy, 10th century, France. Portrait of Persius on fol. 1v.

Other activities

All three projects will yield transcriptions of previously unpublished material. This material will be housed in an online research environment, which will grow in size during the course of the project. The tool that will be used to create the preliminary editions and to make the material accessible to all involved is eLaborate, a tool for scholarly text edition and text analyses developed by the ICT & Texts group of the Huygens Institute. In collaboration with the software developers of the Huygens Institute, the tool will be further developed and customised to optimize its functionalities for the purpose of the research project.

In the third year of the project, an international symposium will be organised on the subject of ‘The road to wisdom: how did knowledge travel in the early Middle Ages?’ In this symposium I intend to discuss questions which remain outside the scope of the proposed projects, but which, nonetheless, have a direct relation to the dynamics of early medieval intellectual life: travelling scholars and travelling manuscripts, intellectual networks, and early medieval letters as sources for the history of scholarly life. The proceedings will be published.

Summary of output

  • one dissertation (PhD-student)
  • one monograph (applicant)
  • a series of articles (Postdoc, applicant)
  • online database with transcriptions of marginal texts in early medieval manuscripts (all)
  • volume of proceedings (all)

National and international partners

The project will be carried out at the Huygens Institute. Dr. Mariken Teeuwen will act as coordinator and day-to-day leader of the project, in order to closely watch over the coherence and progress of the individual projects. I shall collaborate with the research group at Utrecht University that has a strong focus on the early Middle Ages and intellectual culture, especially Prof. Mayke de Jong and Prof. Marco Mostert, who will act as promotores/advisors for the proposed projects. Further directly involved national partners will be Leiden University Library and the Scaliger Institute. The Scaliger Institute regularly hosts fellows whose research is close to the project’s theme and from whose presence I can profit: Prof. Rosamond McKitterick (Cambridge) and Dr. Sinead O’Sullivan (Belfast). The project will furthermore supplement the project run by Dr. Erik Kwakkel at Leiden University, about the twelfth-century revolution of the book: his project begins where ours will end.

Internationally, cooperation has been established with the LMU-Excellent project ‘Glossenedition’ in Munich, which focuses on the development of new forms to edit glosses (www.klassphil.uni-muenchen.de/forschung/editing_glosses); the Boethius-glosses research group run by Prof. Malcolm Godden in Oxford (www.english.ox.ac.uk/boethius); and individual projects on glosses, such as the project on Priscian glosses run by Dr. Pádraic Moran, University of Galway (www.stgallpriscian.ie); and the Vienna project run by Dr. Aaron Griffith on Old Irish Glosses (www.univie.ac.at/indogermanistik/milan_glosses.htm). I shall of course approach Prof. David Ganz, King’s College London, to act as external advisor for all three proposed projects, since his knowledge on the subject of early medieval manuscripts and scholarship is unrivalled.

Research impact outside the direct area of research

Apart from the field of early medieval history and culture, I foresee an impact of this project in the domain of textual scholarship. First of all, dealing with glosses means dealing with texts that are fluid, unclosed, multilayered, linked to annotative material, often with indeterminate contours and unclear functions. Many of these characteristics can nowadays be observed in modern media, such as online texts (weblogs as much as websites) or Wikipedia-like content. The traditional tools of textual scholarship and editorial practice tend to fail if one is dealing with this flexible and ‘marginal’ material. An important goal will therefore be to experiment with new formats for editing glosses; especially the electronic platform in the form of virtual research environments (VREs) offers the flexibility one needs for a proper edition of glosses.

Furthermore, this project will further the development of a structure for computational supported analysis and research on collections of texts and commentaries, searching for both continuity (overlap, parallels, shared sources), and change (deviance, loss of material and introduction of new material/new methods/new ideas). We will experiment with digital tools developed at the Huygens Institute for other editions, such as the CollateX-software used for a digital comparison of different print-runs (Hermans project, Huygens Institute). Since this project will entail an online repository of electronic text, experiments with stylistic analysis software (Prof.dr. D. Hoover, New York University; Dr. K. Van Dalen-Oskam, Huygens Institute) could be done on particular subsets of data, to measure the degree of closeness between gloss collections or commentary traditions and establish their relationships. The Huygens Institute furthermore collaborates with the research group of Prof.dr. P. Ziche (UU), who developed an innovative search engine to query large quantities of texts without resorting to key-word searches. Their ANNH, Assiociative neural networks for the humanities, offers a way to mine texts for concepts without knowing their precise terminology or vocabulary.

Tests of this kind will yield results for the project, but they will also help to develop better tools, and to assess their value for medieval Latin studies in particular, and textual scholarship as a whole in general. We will participate in conferences in the area of the digital humanities, in order to share our experiences with that particular research community and to engage with their expertise. The development of tools for text editions, textual analysis and text comparison is the core-activity of the department of ICT & Texts of the Huygens Institute. This department is partner in several national endeavours in the field of computational humanities, e.g. the Virtual Knowledge Studio and project Alfalab, KNAW (http://alfalablog.knaw.nl). The department also participates in a number of international collaborations in this field, most importantly the ESF/COST Action IS0704 Interedition (granted 2007-2012). The proposed project on glossed texts will be a very productive use case to develop and test new tools.

This project will therefore not only benefit the international community of early medieval studies, but also the growing community of textual scholars working with digital tools, looking for new ways of presenting flexible medieval traditions, and researching their treasures. It will inspire and assist a new generation of medievalists, showing them how manuscripts can be presented electronically, and how analysis can be supported by computational means.

Literature references

1. Editions

M. Bernhard & C.M. Bower, eds. (1993-), Glossa maior in institutionem musicam Boethii, Editionsband 1-3, 4 in Vorbereitung, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Veröffentlichungen der Musikhistorischen Kommission, Band 9-11, 12 in Vorbereitung (München, 1993, 1994, 1996, forthcoming).

M. Hellmann (2000), Tironische Noten in der Karolingerzeit am Beispiel eines Persius-Kommentars aus der Schule von Tours, MGH Studien und Texte, 27 (Hannover, 2000).

É. Jeauneau, ‘Le commentaire érigénien sur Martianus Capella (De nuptiis, Lib. I) d’après le manuscript d’Oxford (Bodl. Libr. Auct. T. 2.19, fol. 1-31)’, in Quatre themes érigéniens (Montréal, Paris, 1978).

C.E. Lutz (1939), Iohannis Scotti Annotationes in Marcianum, The Medieval Academy of America, 34 (Cambridge, Mass., 1939)

C.E. Lutz (1944), Dunchad Glossae in Martianum (Lancaster, Oxford, 1944).

C.E. Lutz (1962-1965), Remigii Autissiodorensis Commentum in Martianum Capellam, 2 Vols. (Leiden, 1962-65).

A.P. Orbán (ed.), Aratoris Subdiaconi Historia apostolica, Pars II: Cum glossis, Corpus Christianorum Series Latina, 130A (Turnhout, 2006).

I. Ramelli (2006), Tutti i commenti a Marziano Capella. Scoto Eriugena, Remigio di Auxerre, Bernardo Silvestri e Anonimi (Milan 2006)

S. O’Sullivan (2004), Early Medieval Glosses on Prudentius’ Psychomachia. The Weitz Tradition, Mittellateinische Studien und Texte, 31 (Leiden, Boston, 2004).

M. Teeuwen, (2002), Harmony and the Music of the Spheres. The ars musica in ninth-century commentaries on Martianus Capella, Mittellateinische Studien und Texte 30 (Leiden, Boston, Köln, 2002).

M. Teeuwen et alii, eds. (2008), Digital edition Carolingian Scholarship: Glosses on Martianus Capella, first published Nov. 2008, regularly updated, http://martianus.huygens.knaw.nl

2. Literature

B. Bischoff (1961), ‘Hadoardus and the Manuscripts of Classical Authors from Corbie’, in Didascaliae. studies in honor of Anselm M. Albareda, prefect of the Vatican Library, S. Prete & A.M. Albareda, eds. (New York, 1961), 41-57.

B. Bischoff (1974), Lorsch im Spiegel seiner Handschriften (München, 1974); revised ed. Die Abtei Lorsch im Spiegel ihrer Handschriften (Darmstadt, 1989).

B. Bischoff (1981), ‘Die Hofbibliothek Karls des Grossen’, Mittelalterliche Studien III (Stuttgart, 1981), 149-169; revised repr. in English transl. by M. Gorman, Manuscripts and libraries in the age of Charlemagne, Studies in Palaeography and Codicology, 1 (Cambridge, 1994), 56-75.

B. Bischoff (1998, 2004), Katalog der festländischen Handschriften des neunten Jahrhunderts (mit Ausnahme der wisigotischen), Teil 1: Aachen-Lambach (Wiesbaden, 1998), Teil 2: Laon-Paderborn, ed. by B. Ebersperger (Wiesbaden 2004).

C.M. Bower (2002), ‘The transmission of ancient music theory into the Middle Ages’, in The Cambridge History of Western Music Theory, T. Christensen, ed. (Cambridge, 2002), 136-167.

D. Bullough (2003), ‘Charlemagne’s court library revisited’, Early Medieval Europe 12 (2003), 339-363.

P.L. Butzer, M. Kerner & W. Oberschelp, eds. (1997), Karl der Grosse und sein Nachwirken. 1200 Jahre Kultur und Wissenschaft in Europa. Band I: Wissen und Weltbild (Turnhout, 1997).

J.J. Contreni (1978), The Cathedral School of Laon from 850 to 930: its manuscripts and masters, Münchener Beiträge zur Mediävistik und Renaissance-Forschung, 29 (München, 1978).

J.J. Contreni (1980), ‘Inharmonious Harmony: Education in the Carolingian World’, in The Annals of Scholarship: Metastudies of the Humanities and Social Sciences 1 (New York, 1980), 81-96; reprint in Contreni (1992), IV.

J.J. Contreni (1992), Carolingian Learning: Masters and Manuscripts, Variorum Collected Studies Series (Aldershot, 1992).

J.J. Contreni (1995), ‘The Carolingian Renaissance: education and literary culture’, in The New Cambridge Medieval History II, R. McKitterick, ed., 709-757.

J.J. Contreni (2003), ‘Glossing the Bible in the Early Middle Ages: Theodore and Hadrian of Canterbury and John Scottus (Eriugena)’, in C. Chazelle & B. Van Name Edwards, eds., The Study of the Bible in the Carolingian Era, Medieval Church Studies 3 (Turnhout, 2003), 19-38.

A.C. Dionisotti (1996), ‘On the nature and transmission of Latin glossaries’, in Les manuscrits de lexiques et glossaires de l’antiquité au moyen âge, J. Hamesse, ed. (Louvain, 1996), 202-252.

B.S. Eastwood (2007), Ordering the Heavens. Roman Astronomy and Cosmology in the Carolingian Renaissance, History of Science and Medicine Library, 4, Medieval and Early Modern Science, 8 (Leiden, Boston, 2007).

M. Garrison (1998), ‘The social world of Alcuin: Nicknames at York and at the Carolingian court’, in Alcuin of York, Scholar at the Carolingian court, L.A.J.R. Houwen & A.A. MacDonald, eds., Germania Latina III (Groningen, 1998), 59-79.

M. Garrison (2005), ‘Alcuin and Tibullus’, in Poesía Latina Medieval (Siglos V-XV), Actas del IV Congreso del Internationales Mittellateinerkomitee, M.C. Díaz Y Díaz & J.M. Díaz de Bustamante, eds. (Firenze, 2005), 749-759.

D. Ganz (1990), Corbie in the Carolingian Renaissance, Beihefte der Francia, 20 (Sigmaringen, 1990).

D. Ganz (1990a), ‘The Epitaphium Arsenii and opposition to Louis the Pious’, in Charlemagne’s Heir. New Perspectives on the Reign of Louis the Pious (814-840), Peter Godman and Roger Collins, eds. (Oxford, 1990), pp. 537-50.

D. Ganz (1993), ‘The Liber glossarum: a Carolingian encyclopedia’, in P.L. Butzer and D. Lohrmann (eds.), Science in Western and Eastern Civilization in Carolingian Times (Basel, 1993), 127-138.

D. Ganz (1995), ‘Book production in the Carolingian empire and the spread of Caroline minuscule’, in The New Cambridge Medieval History II, R. McKitterick, ed. (Cambridge, 1995), 786-808.

G. Genette, Paratexts. Thresholds of interpretation, transl. J.E. Lewin, Literature, Culture, Theory, 20 (Cambridge, 1997); originally published in French as Seuils (Paris, 1987).

M.T. Gibson & J.L. Nelson, eds. (1990), Charles the Bald: Court and kingdom, 2nd rev. edition, Variorum Collected Studies Series (Aldershot, 1990).

P. Godman (1985), Poetry of the Carolingian Renaissance (Norman, OK, 1985).

P. Godman & R. Collins, eds. (1990), Charlemagne’s Heir. New perspectives on the reign of Louis the Pious (814-840) (Oxford, 1990).

M.-O. Goulet-Cazé e.a., eds. (2000), Le commentaire entre tradition et innovation (Paris, 2000).

I. Illich (1996), In the Vineyard of the Texts: A Commentary to Hugh’s Didascalicon (Chicago, 1996).

M.B. de Jong (1995), ‘Carolingian monasticism: the power of prayer’, in The New Cambridge Medieval History II, R. McKitterick (ed.), 622-653.

M.B. de Jong (2009), The penitential state. Authority and atonement in the age of Louis the Pious, 814-840 (Cambridge, 2009).

Chr. Joost-Gaugier, Measuring heaven. Pythagoras and his influence on thought and art in Antiquity and the Middle Ages (Ithaca, London, 2006).

E. Kwakkel (2007), ‘The Cultural Dynamics of Medieval Book Production’, in Manuscripten en miniaturen: studies aangeboden aan Anne S. Korteweg bij haar afscheid van de Koninklijke Bibliotheek, J. Biemans e.a., eds., Bijdragen voor de geschiedenis van de Nederlandse boekhandel, 8 (Zutphen, 2007), 243-252.

E. Kwakkel (2009), ‘Turning over a New Leaf: Manuscript Innovation in the Twelfth-Century Renaissance’, VIDI Proposal for NWO, 2009, granted for the period 2010-2015.

M. Lapidge (1982), ‘The Study of Latin Texts in Late Anglo-Saxon England: The Evidence of Latin Glosses’, in Latin and the Vernacular Languages in Early Medieval Britain, N. Brooks, ed. (Leicester, 1982), 99-140.

G. Lobrichon e.a., eds. (1991), L’école carolingienne d’Auxerre de Murethach à Remi 830-908, Entretiens D’Auxerre 1989 (Paris, 1991)

J. Marenbon (2002), ‘Platonism – A doxographic approach: The early Middle Ages’, in The Platonic Tradition in the Middle Ages, S. Gersh & M.J.F.M. Hoenen, eds. (Berlin, New York, 2002)

H. Mayr-Harting (2007), Church and Cosmos in Early Ottonian Germany: The View from Cologne (Oxford, 2007).

R. McKitterick, ed. (1994), Carolingian Culture: emulation and innovation (Cambridge, 1994).

R. McKitterick, ed. (1995), The New Cambridge Medieval History II, c.700-c.900 (Cambridge, 1995).

G.W. Most, ed. (1999), Commentaries – Kommentare, Aporemata. Kritische Studien zur Philologiegeschichte, Band 4 (Göttingen, 1999).

M. Mostert (1989), The Library of Fleury: A provisional handlist of manuscripts (Hilversum, 1989).

L. Nees (1991), A tainted mantle. Hercules and the classical tradition at the Carolingian Court (Pennsylvania, 1991).

L.D. Reynolds, ed. (1983), Texts and Transmission. A survey of the Latin Classics (Oxford, 1983).

S. Reynolds (1996), ‘Glossing Horace: Using the Classics in the Medieval Classroom’, in Medieval Manuscripts of the Latin Classics: Production and Use, C.A. Chavannes-Mazel and M.M. Smith, eds. (Los Altos Hills, London, 1996), pp. 103-17.

M. Teeuwen (2002), Harmony and the Music of the Spheres. The ars musica in ninth-century commentaries on Martianus Capella, Mittellateinische Studien und Texte 30 (Leiden, Boston, Köln, 2002).

M. Teeuwen (2008), ‘The pursuit of secular learning: the oldest commentary tradition on Martianus Capella’, The Journal of Medieval Latin 18 (2008), 36-51.

C. Villa (1995), ‘Die Horazüberlieferung und die ‘Bibliothek Karls des Grossen’: Zum Werkverzeichnis der Handschrift Berlin, Diez B. Sant. 66’, Deutsches Archiv 51 (1995), 29-52.

G. Wieland & A.G. Rigg (1975), ‘A Canterbury Classbook of the Mid-Eleventh Century’, Anglo-Saxon England 4 (1975), 113-30.

G. Wieland (1983), The Latin Glosses on Arator and Prudentius in Cambridge University Library Ms. Gg. 5.35, Studies and Texts 61 (Toronto, 1983).

G. Wieland, ‘The Glossed Manuscript: Classbook or Library Book?’, Anglo-Saxon England 14 (1985), 153-73.

P. Wormald & J. Nelson, eds. (2007), Lay intellectuals in the Carolingian world (Cambridge, 2007).

J.E.G. Zetzel (2005), Marginal scholarship and textual deviance. The Commentum Cornuti and the early scholia on Persius, Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies Supplement 84 (London, 2005).

3. Preliminary list of relevant early manuscripts (or parts of manuscripts) from the collection of Leiden University Library

Based on B. Bischoff, Katalog der festländischen Handschriften des neunten Jahrhunderts, Teil 2: Laon-Paderborn, ed. by B. Ebersperger (Wiesbaden 2004), 39-67.

  1. BPL 36: Martianus Capella; Lupus, Quid sit ceroma. Lorsch, s. IX, 2nd half.
  2. BPL 52: Servius, Commentarii in Vergilii Aeneida. Corbie, s. VIII-IX and s. IX, middle.
  3. BPL 67: Priscianus, Periegesis, Institutiones grammaticae. Irish centre in France, 838, hand of John the Scot.
  4. BPL 67D: Epitome Libri Glossarum. France, s. IX, beginning.
  5. BPL 67E: Glossaria Latina. Lotharingia?, s. IX, beginning.
  6. BPL 67F: Glossaria Latina. Northeast France, s. VIII/IX.
  7. BPL 78: Persius, Satyrae cum scholiis. West Germany, s. X.
  8. BPL 87: Martianus Capella. East France, s. IX, 4th quarter.
  9. BPL 88: Martianus Capella. Reims?, s. IX, 3rd quarter.
  10. BPL 109: Terentius cum scholiis. Loire region, s. X, 2nd half.
  11. BPL 122: Carmina; Donatus; Isidorus, Etymologiae; Servius, De finalibus; Beda, De arte metrica. Lyon or St. Oyan, s. IX, 4th quarter.
  12. BPL 135 (f. 66-86): Fulgentius, Expositio sermonum antiquorum; Pseudo-Sergius et Glosiolae; Servius, Centimetrum. Northeast France, s. IX, 1st half.
  13. BPL 135 (f. 87-111): Clemens Scottus, Expositio in barbarismo; Brevis expositio Vergilii Georgicorum. Northeast France, s. IX, 2nd quarter.
  14. BPL 137: Curtius, Historiae Alexandri Magni. Auxerre, s. IX, 2nd third.
  15. BPL 141 (f. 1-2): Vergilius, Georgica, followed by works of Hincmar. Saint-Amand, s. IX, end.
  16. Burm. Q. 3: Prudentius. Saint-Denis, s. IX, 2nd quarter.
  17. Lips. 7: Plinius, Historia naturalis. Murbach-Luxeuil, s. IX, 1st quarter.
  18. Scal. 28: Beda, Tabulae paschales; Alia Chronologica. Flavigny, ca. 816.
  19. Voss. Lat. F. 12? (f. 15-26): Cicero, De senectute; Macrobius, Commentarius in Somnium Scipionis. France, s. IX, 2nd third.
  20. Voss. Lat. F. 12? (f. 27-34): Arator. France, s. IX, 2nd third.
  21. Voss. Lat. F. 12? (f. 35-42): Fragmentum synodi Romanae III; Iustini imp. Epistula; al. Fleury, s. IX, middle.
  22. Voss. Lat. F. 24: Glossaria. Region of Tours, s. IX, 2nd quarter.
  23. Voss. Lat. F. 25: Vergilius; Servius. ?, s. X, 1st half.
  24. Voss. Lat. F. 26: Glossae. Amiens, s. IX, 1st third.
  25. Voss. Lat. F. 30: Lucretius (oblongus). Northwest Germany, s. IX, 1st half.
  26. Voss. Lat. F. 48: Martianus Capella. Northeast France, s. IX, 1st third.
  27. Voss. Lat. F. 61: Pliny. Northeast France (Corbie?), ca. 800.
  28. Voss. Lat. F. 67 (f. 1-2): Cicero, Pro P. Sestio Oratio. Loire region, s. IX, 3rd quarter.
  29. Voss. Lat. F. 67 (f. 3-8): Iustinus, Epitome Pompei Trogi. St. Gallen, s. IX/X.
  30. Voss. Lat. F. 67 (f. 9-28): Sedulius Scottus, Commentarius in Prsicianum; Priscianus, Opuscula. Region of Reims, s. IX/X.
  31. Voss. Lat. F. 70 I (f. 1-66): Boethius, Commentarius in Ciceronis Topica; Pseudo-Augustinus, Categoriae X; Apuleius, Peri ermenias; Porphyrius, Isagoge; Macrobius; Cicero, De inventione. West France, s. IX, 3rd third.
  32. Voss. Lat. F. 70 I (f. 67-73): Glossae, Alcuini versus; Seneca, Epistulae ad Lucilium. West France, s. X, 1st half.
  33. Voss. Lat. F. 73: Priscianus, Institutiones grammaticae. Tours, s. IX, 1st half.
  34. Voss. Lat. F. 74: Isidorus, Etymologiae. Loire region, s. IX, 2nd quarter.
  35. Voss. Lat. F. 79: Iunius Philargyrius, Commentarius in Bucolica et Georgica; Servius Danielis, Commentarius (abbrev.) in Aeneida. South France, s. IX, 4th quarter.
  36. Voss. Lat. F. 82: Isidorus, Etymologiae; Glossaria; al. Paris, Saint-Germain-des-Prés, s. IX, beginning.
  37. Voss. Lat. F. 84 + 86: Cicero, De natura deorum; De divinatione, al. North France, s. IX, middle.
  38. Voss. Lat. F. 96A: Praecepta medica (lat-breton). Bretagne, s. VIII/IX or s. IX, beginning.
  39. Voss. Lat. F. 113 (f. 1-70): Pseudo-Aethicus, Cosmographia; Historia Apollonii (fragment); al. Tours, s. IX, 3rd quarter.
  40. Voss. Lat. Q. 2: Macrobius, Saturnalia. Loire region, s. IX, 2nd quarter.
  41. Voss. Lat. Q. 9: Liber Herbarius. Italy (?), s. VI, 2nd half, with annotations in ninth- and tenth-century hands.
  42. Voss. Lat. Q. 20: Curtius, Historiae Alexandri Magni; Iulii Valerii Epitome; al. Tours, s. IX, 2nd half.
  43. Voss. Lat. Q. 30: Petronius. Region of Ferrières, s. IX, 3rd quarter.
  44. Voss. Lat. Q. 32: Iustinus, Epitome Pompei Trogi. Fleury, s. IX, 2nd quarter.
  45. Voss. Lat. Q. 33: Commenta in Artem Donati; Lactantius, Carmen de ave Phoenice; al; Priscianus, Partitiones XII versuum; Serenus Sammonicus; Disticha Catonis; al. West France, s. IX, 3rd quarter.
  46. Voss. Lat. Q. 69: Glossaria; Collectio Carminum; unidentified texts. St. Gallen, s. VIII/IX.
  47. Voss. Lat. Q. 71: Cicero, De officiis. East France, s. IX, 2nd quarter.
  48. Voss. Lat. Q. 75: Cassiodorus, De anima; Augustinus, Soliloquia, al.; Astronomica; al. East France, s. IX, 2nd half.
  49. Voss. Lat. Q. 79: Germanicus, Aratea. Aachen, court of Louis the Pious.
  50. Voss. Lat. Q. 83: Querolus (comedia). Central France, s. IX, 2nd half.
  51. Voss. Lat. Q. 87: Solinus. Loire region, s. IX, 2nd quarter.
  52. Voss. Lat. Q. 94: Lucretius (quadratus). Northeast France, s. IX, middle.
  53. Voss. Lat. Q. 101: Iustinus. ?, s. IX/X.
  54. Voss. Lat. Q. 108 (f. 3-67): Hieronymus, Gennadius, De viris illustribus. Wei?enburg, s. IX, 1st quarter.
  55. Voss. Lat. Q. 130: Scholiasta Gronovianus, Commentarii in Ciceronis orationes. Tours, s. IX, 2nd quarter.
  56. Voss. Lat. O. 12: Priscianus, Opera nonnulla intermixtis aliis opusculis grammaticalibus. France, s. IX/X.
  57. Voss. Lat. O. 73 (f. 1-30): Glossae in Prisciani Institutionum grammaticarum libros. Reims, s. IX, end.
  58. Voss. Lat. O. 73 (f. 31-145): Consentius, Ars de nomine et verbo; Sergius, De litteris; al.; Commentarius in Donatum; Paulus Diaconus, Festi, Epitoma; Lupus, de tribus quaestionibus. Reims (?), s. IX.
  59. Voss. Lat. O. 41 (f. 2-65): Eutyches, Ars de verbo; Isidorus, Etymologiae; Alphabeta. Northeast France, s. IX, 4th quarter.
  60. Voss. Lat. O. 69 (f. 1-81): Hieronymus; Gennadius; Augustinus et Fulgentius. Loire region, s. IX, 1st third.
  61. Voss. Lat. O. 74: Glossaria. Region of Paris, s. IX, 1st quarter.
  62. Voss. Lat. O. 79: Cicero, Cato Maior; al.; Marius Plotius Sacerdos; Servius, Centimetrum. Central France, s. IX, 4th quarter.
  63. Voss. Lat. O. 80: Servius, Commentarii in Vergilii Bucolica et Georgica. West France, s. IX, 3rd and 2nd quarter.
  64. Voss. Lat. O. 88: Opus grammaticale; Glossarium; Epistulae; al. France, s. IX/X.
  65. Voss. Lat. O. 94. Commentarii Notarum Tironianarum. Reims, s. IX/X.